The city of Ashkelon may be the last to fall, in 701 BC.
In they are reckoned with other tribes in Mizraim Egypt as descendants of Ham, and as cousins of the old inhabitants of Babylonia.
I would not say that this is a major strand of argument necessarily for anyone, on any side of things, and certainly not historically validated at any rate.
The Philistines were most famous for 2 things: alcohol and weapons.
Each side agreed to abide by the result.
The Arabs adopt the Greek name from the Romans Under the Romans, Philistia remained divided into subservient polities, one of which was Judea.